9 2月 2020


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81. Not only are liver transplants never rejected,but they even induce a state of donor-specific unresponsiveness in which subsequent transplants of other organs, such as skin,from that donor are accepted permanently.

但是,我们已经发现,在许多种老鼠之间,这些移植法的”常规”并没有被肝脏移植物所遵循。肝脏移植物非但从没遭到过排斥,甚至还诱发了一种供者特异性无应答状态(donor-specific unresponsiveness),在此状态中,随后来自那个供者其它器官的移植物,如皮肤,会永久地被接受。

82. As rock interface are crossed, the elastic characteristics encountered (by seismic waves)generally change abruptly, which causes part of the energy to be reflected back to the surface, where it is recorded by seismic instruments.


83. While the new doctrine seems almost certainly correct,the one papyrus fragment raises the specter that another may be unearthed,showing,for instance,that it was a posthumous production of the Danaid tetralogy which bested Sophocles,and throwing the date once more into utter confusion.

数据资料已被统计出来,或被重新统计出来,以便证明在文体学这方面,《乞援衰女》实际上确实在《波斯人》和《七雄攻忒拜》(后两者现在则变成了”原始”的剧作)之后以及在轴残片却唤起了一种幽灵似的疑虑,即另一块残片有可能再度被挖掘出来,并证明,比如说,《乞援衰女》是作者藉以击败索福克勒斯的《达那特四部曲》的一部死后出版之作,从而将创作年代再度置于极度的混乱之中. 注:best:击败,=defeat, overcome, outdo

84. The methods that a community devises to perpetuate itself come into being to preserve aspects of the cultural legacy that that community perceives as essential.


85. Traditionally, pollination by wind has been viewed as a reproductive process marked by random events in which the vagaries of the wind are compensated for by the generation of vast quantities of pollen, so that the ultimate production of new seeds is assured at the expense of producing much more pollen than is actually used.


86. Because the potential hazards pollen grains are subject to as they are transported over long distances are enormous,wind pollinated plants have,in the view above,compensated for the ensuing loss of pollen through happenstance by virtue of producing an amount of pollen that is one to three orders of magnitude greater than the amount produced by species pollinated by insects.


87. For example,the spiral arrangement of scale-bract complexes on ovule-bearing pine cones,where the female reproductive organs of conifers are located,is important to the production of airflow patterns that spiral over the cone’s surfaces,thereby passing airborne pollen from one scale to the next.


88. Friedrich Engels, however, predicted that women would be liberated from the “social, legal, and economic subordination” of the family by technological developments that made possible the recruitment of “the whole female sex into public industry”.

FE,却预测妇女们将被从家庭的 “社会、法律和经济压迫” 中解放出来,只是通过使得征召 “整个女性阶层进入公共的工业中去” 成为可能的技术进步的方式做到的。

89. It was not the change in office technology,but rather the separation of secretarial work,previously seen as an apprenticeship for beginning managers,from administrative work that in the 1880’s created a new class of “dead-end” jobs,thenceforth considered “women’s work.”

十九世纪八十年代,产生了新的一类 “没前途” 的职业,这并不是因为办公室技术发生了改变,而是由于秘书工作–在此之前被视作是初起步的经理们的一种习见训练–与行政工作的分离。自此以后,这类 “没前途” 的职业便被视作是 “女人的工作”。

90. The increase in the numbers of married women employed outside the home in the twentieth century had less to do with the mechanization of housework and an increase in leisure time for these women than it did with their own economic necessity and with high marriage rates that shrank the available pool of single women workers, previously, in many cases, the only women employers would hire.

二十世纪已婚妇女在家庭以外就业的人数不断增加,这与家务的机械化及这些妇女闲暇时间的增加并无多大联系,更多地是与妇女自身的经济需要和高婚姻率相关。高婚姻率致使所能雇佣的单身女工的总量缩减,而在此之前的许多情形中,单身女性则是雇主们所愿雇佣的唯一一类妇女。 The pool of 如果后面跟着一群人,则表示劳动力资源。