9 2月 2020


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41. But achieving necessary matches in physical properties across interfaces between living and nonliving matter requires knowledge of which molecules control the bonding of cells to each other-an area that we have not yet explored thoroughly.


42. Islamic law is a phenomenon so different from all other forms of law-notwithstanding,of course,a considerable and inevitable number of coincidences with one or the other of them as far as subject matter and positive enactments are concerned-that its study is indispensable in order to appreciate adequately the full range of possible legal phenomena.


43. (Both Jewish law and canon law are more uniform than Islamic law.)Though historically there is a discernible break between Jewish law of the sovereign state of ancient Israel and of the Diaspora (the dispersion of Jewish people after the conquest of Israel), the spirit of the legal matter in later parts of the Old Testament is very close to that of the Talmud, one of the primary codifications of Jewish law in the Diaspora.

尽管从历史角度来看,在古代以色列作为独立主权国家的犹太教法与大流散时期(Diaspora,即以色列被征服后古代犹太人被巴比伦人逐出故土)的犹太教法之间存在着一个明晰可辨的断裂,然则,《旧约全书》(Old Testament)后半部分中法律内容的精神与《犹太教法典》(Talmud)极为一脉相承,而所谓的《犹太教法典》,是指大流散时期犹太教法的主要典籍辑录之一。

44. Islam,on the other hand,represented a radical breakaway from the Arab paganism that preceded it;Islamic law is the result of an examination, from a religious angle,(examination)of legal subject matter that was far from uniform,comprising as it did the various components of the laws of pre-Islamic Arabia and numerous legal elements taken over from the non-Arab peoples of the conquered territories.

另一方面,伊斯兰教则代表着与此前存在的阿拉伯异教(Arab paganism)的一种根本上的决裂;伊斯兰法是从宗教的角度,对各种杂乱无章、绝无共同点的法律内容进行考察所致的结果,而这些法律内容实际上是由前伊斯兰阿拉伯国家(Pre-Islamic Arabia)法律的不尽相同的组成部分以及由从被征服的土地上非阿拉伯民族借鉴过来的无数法律因素所构成。 (as it did )实际上是一句插入语。

45. One such novel idea is that (idea) of inserting into the chromosomes of plants discrete genes that are not a part of the plants’ natural constitution:specifically,the idea of inserting into nonleguminous plants the genes,if they can be identified and isolated,that fit the leguminous plants to be hosts for nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Hence,(there is ) the intensified research on legumes.


46. It is one of nature’s great ironies that the availability of nitrogen in the soil frequently sets an upper limit on plant growth even though the plants’ leaves are bathed in a sea of nitrogen gas.


47. Unless they succeed,the yield gains of the Green Revolution will be largely lost even if the genes in legumes that equip those plants to enter into a symbiosis with nitrogen fixers are identified and isolated,and even if the transfer of those gene complexes,once they are found, becomes possible.

除非他们能取得成功,不然的话,绿色革命的产量收益将在很大程度上损失殆尽,即使豆科植物中使这些植物有条件进入到与固氮细菌共生关系的基因可被辨识出来和分离开来的话,且即使这些基因综合体(gene complex),一旦被发现之后,其移植得以成为可能的话。

48. Its subject(to use Maynard Mack’s categories)is “life-as-spectacle,” for readers, diverted by its various incidents,observe its hero Odysseus primarily from without; the tragic Iliad,however,presents “life-as-experience”:readers are asked to identify with the mind of Achilles,whose motivations render him a not particularly likeable hero.

其主题〔若借鉴梅纳德。迈克(Maynard Mack)的两个分类范畴的话〕是”人生作为外部景象”,因为读者的注意力被作品那形形色色的事件所分散,主要是从外部来观察其主人公奥德修斯(Odyssus)的;然而,富于悲剧色彩的《伊利亚特》所表现的则是”人生作为内心体验”:读者被要求与阿基琉斯(Achilles)的心灵产生共鸣,而其行为动机却致使他变作一个并非特别惹人喜爱的主人公。 (从分号后的语句推理出前面的意思)注:hero:主人公; without:外部; likable:有吸引力的

49. Most striking among the many asymmetries evident in an adult flatfish is eye placement: before maturity one eye migrates,so that in an adult flatfish both eyes are on the same side of the head.


50. A critique of Handlin’s interpretation of why legal slavery did not appear until the 1660’s suggests that assumptions about the relation between slavery and racial prejudice should be reexamined , and that explanations for the different treatment of Black slaves in North and South America should be expanded .