9 2月 2020


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21. As my own studies have advanced,I have been increasingly impressed with the functional similarities between insect and vertebrate societies and less so with the structural differences that seem,at first glance,to constitute such an immense gulf between them.


22. Although fiction assuredly springs from political circumstances,its authors react to those circumstances in ways other than ideological,and talking about novels and stories primarily as instruments of ideology circumvents much of the fictional enterprise.


23. Is this a defect,or are the authors working out of,or trying to forge,a different kind of aesthetic?


24. In addition, the style of some Black novels, like Jean Toomer’s Cane, verges on expressionism or surrealism ;does this technique provide a counterpoint to the prevalent theme that portrays the fate against which Black heroes are pitted , a theme usually conveyed by more naturalistic modes of expression ?


25. Black Fiction surveys a wide variety of novels,bringing to our attention in the process some fascinating and little-known works like James Weldon Johnson’s Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man.

《黑人小说》考察了极为广泛的一系列小说,在此过程中让我们注意到了某些引人入胜但却鲜为人知的作品,如詹姆斯。韦尔登。约翰逊(James Weldon Johnson)的《一个曾经是有色人的自传》(Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man)。

26. Although these molecules allow radiation at visible wavelengths, where most of the energy of sunlight is concentrated,to pass through,they absorb some of the longer-wavelength,infrared emissions radiated from the Earth’s surface,radiation that would otherwise be transmitted back into space.

虽然这些分子允许可见波长(visible wavelength)的辐射–阳光的绝大部分能量就汇集于此–不受阻挡地穿透,但它们却会吸收某些较长波长(longer-wavelength),亦即从地球表面辐射出的红外发射(infrared emission),这种辐射若不是二氧化碳的缘故就会被重新输送回太空。

27. The role those anthropologists ascribe to evolution is not of dictating the details of human behavior but one of imposing constraints-ways of feeling,thinking,and acting that “come naturally” in archetypal situations in any culture.


28. Which of the following most probably provides an appropriate analogy from human morphology for the “details” versus “constraints” distinction made in the passage in relation to human behavior?


29. A low number of algal cells in the presence of a high number of grazers suggested,but did not prove, that the grazers had removed most of the algae.


30. Perhaps the fact many of these first studies considered only algae of a size that could be collected in a net (net phytoplankton), a practice that overlooked the smaller phytoplankton (nannoplankton) that we now know grazers are most likely to feed on , led to a de-emphasis of the role of grazers in subsequent research.


31. Studies by Hargrave and Geen estimated natural community grazing rates by measuring feeding rates of individual zooplankton species in the laboratory and then computing community grazing rates for field conditions using the known population density of grazers.


32. In the periods of peak zooplankton abundance,that is,in the late spring and in the summer, Haney recorded maximum daily community grazing rates,for nutrient-poor lakes and bog lakes,respectively,of 6.6 percent and 114 percent of daily phytoplankton production.


33. The hydrologic cycle,a major topic in this science,is the complete cycle of phenomena through which water passes,beginning as atmospheric water vapor,passing into liquid and solid form as precipitation,thence along and into the ground surface,and finally again returning to the form of atmospheric water vapor by means of evaporation and transpiration.

水文循环(hydrologic cycle),作为该学科中的一个主要课题,指的是水所经过的诸现象的整个循环过程,开始时是作为大气中的水蒸气,转而作为雨、雪、露、雹一类的降水量经过液体和固体形态,由此而沿着地层表面分布或进入地层表面,最终通过蒸发和散发作用再度回复到大气水蒸气的形态。

34. Only when a system possesses natural or artificial boundaries that associate the water within it the hydrologic cycle may the entire system properly be termed hydrogeologic.


35. The historian Frederick J. Turner wrote in the 1890’s that the agrarian discontent that had been developing steadily in the United States since about 1870 had been precipitated by the closing of the internal frontier–that is,the depletion of available new land needed for further expansion of the American farming system.

史学家弗雷德里克.杰.特纳(Frederick J.Turner)于十九世纪九十年代著述道,美国约自18世纪70年代以来一直在持续不断发展的农民不满,由于国内边远地区(internal frontier)的封闭而更趋加剧–亦即是说,美国农业系统进一步扩展所必需的可资利用的新土地几近耗竭。

36. In the early 1950’s,historians who studied preindustrial Europe (which we may define here as Europe in the period from roughly 1300 to 1800) began, for the first time in large numbers,to investigate more of the preindustrial European population than the 2 or 3 percent who comprised the political and social elite:the kings,generals,judges,nobles,bishops,and local magnates who had hitherto usually filled history books.


37. Historians such as Le Roy Ladurie have used the documents to extract case histories, which have illuminated the attitudes of different social groups (these attitudes include,but are not confined to,attitudes toward crime and the law)and have revealed how the authorities administered justice.

象勒罗伊。拉迪里(Le Roy Ladurie)一类的史学家利用这些文献史料从中挖掘出某些个案史(case history)来,阐明了不同社会群体的态度(这些态度包括,但并非局限于,对犯罪和法律的态度),并揭示出当局是如何执行审判的。

38. It can be inferred from the passage that a historian who wished to compare crime rates per thousand in a European city in one decade of the fifteenth century with crime rates in another decade of that century would probably be most aided by better information about which of the following?


39. My point is that its central consciousness-its profound understanding of class and gender as shaping influences on people’s lives-owes much to that earlier literary heritage,a heritage that,in general,has not been sufficiently valued by most contemporary literary critics.


40. Even the requirement that biomaterials processed from these materials be nontoxic to host tissue can be met by techniques derived from studying the reactions of tissue cultures to biomaterials or from short-term implants.